The first Raja in the valley of Kashmir was Raja Surendar, whose family tree was as: son of Rathore son of Lo son of Khakandar son of Kashar son of Khash. During the reign of Raja Surendar, an Iranian businessman came to Kashmir for trade and went to the palace of Raja Surendar to sell some valuables. The Iranian businessman was impressed by the understanding, the beauty and the conduct of his daughter Katabon and told about her to the King of Iran Bahman, the son of Esfandyar. The emperor Iran sent an envoy to Kashmir at the time, the King asked for relationship with Raja Surendar’s daughter Katabon. Raj Surendar had no male children. The whole India, on the other hand, was the under control of this Kiani king. So, Raja Surendar married his daughter to the emperor Iran. The Darius III of Iran was the son of queen Katabon. In the reign of Darius III, Alexander invaded Iran in 333 B.C, and Darius was assassinated by the Bactrian king. But exactly 90 years later, in 240 B.C, the grand grandson of king Darius and Queen Katabon, defeated decisively the grand grandson of Alexander in Baghdad Iraq and he withdrew his ancestral power and named the Iranian kingdom as Iranian Sasanian on the name of his grandfather Sassan.
After becoming the Raja Surender’s daughter Katabon as the Queen of Iran, the younger brother of Raja Surendar and uncle of Queen Katabon, Raja Ravan occupied the areas of India which were under the control of Iran. He founded and named a place Malwa on his grandfather Lo in India and made it the capital. Malwa had been the capital of Rajput rulers for centuries. Meanwhile Queen Katabon’s real maternal uncle, Raja Gangadhara (he was the descendant of Dhar son of Khash and that is why he was in the same generation as the Queen Katabon), came out from the valley of Kashmir and occupied the areas of present-day Pakhali, Hazara and Attock and then he founded the city of Gandhara in between Taxila and Attock. He was also the founder of Gandhara state and culture. Raja Gangadhara attended the Suember (public selection of a husband by a lady of high rank from among a number of assembled suitors), where he was selected for marriage by Rani Maura, the daughter of Raja of Bihar in India. Because of marrying with Rani Maura, his descendants called Maurya. Their son Raja Haran Dev (Chandra Guppt) became the Maharaja of Hindustan Maharaja Chandra Guppt Maurya with the help of his Maternal grandfather’s home in Bihar state of India. After Maharaja Chandra Guppt Maurya, his son Raja Asoka became the famous Maharaja of Hindustan in 272-231 B.C. After him Raja Jalok, then on his death his brother Raja Damodaran became the Maharaja of India and Kashmir. After him, Raja Narender became Raja of Kashmir.
A brief history of Hindu Pal Rajput Rulers of Kashmir valley is as follows:
|No.||Name of Ruler||Period of Reign|
|1||Raja Narender||193 B.C. He handed over the rule to three Turkish princes, Hashik, Kanishka and Zusak due to the earthquake in 193 B.C., these Turkish princes ruled 41 years|
|2||Raja Abhimanyu||152-129 B.C. He was the grand grandson of Maharaja Asoka’s elder brother Raja Alarak Chandra. In his reign, a Brahman Chandra Charj came from India and introduced the Hindu religion. Later this religion spread out in the valley, after 150 B.C.|
|3||Raja Jay Andar Dhar||After his death in 47 B.C, Raja Ari Rai became ruler of Kashmir.|
|4||Raja Ari Rai||47 B.C-A.D. 1, He showed no interest in governance and kept separate from the governance affairs, this cause the chaos in the country. However, Raja Meghan Pal became the ruler|
|5||Raja Meghan Pal||A.D. 1-35. He was in the 9th. generation of Raja Andar Hister Pal, the son of Raja Akh Pal. His wife, was the daughter of Raja Amrita, the ruler of Qandahar (Afghanistan).|
|6||Raja Sarshat Sin Pal||A.D. 35-65. He was son of Raja Meghan Pal. Kangra state was his Jagir in Punjab. While Maharaja Bikramajit was ruler of Hindustan, who was also from the descendants of Raja Akh Pal. Raja Sarshat Sin Pal had two sons, Raja Haran Pal and Raja Torman Pal|
|7||Raja Haran Pal||A.D. 65-95. He had no male children, he had his nephew, Raja Parosin Pal, the son of Torman Pal in Kangra and was on visit to India in the reign of Maharaja Summandar Pal (A.D. 78-102), was in the 9th. generation of Raja Trashit Pal, who was the 3rd. son of Raja Akh Pal|
|8||Mahtar Guppt Brahman||A.D. 95-102. He was from Maharaja Chandra Guppt Maurya family; hence he was made the ruler of Kashmir by the order of Maharaja Summandar Pal.|
|9||Raja Parosin Pal||A.D. 102-162. On the death of Maharaja Summandar Pal in A.D. 102, Mahtar Guppt Brahman offered to Raja Parosin Pal (original heir) to become the ruler of Kashmir. Later, the ruler Raja Parosin Pal also helped Raja Shala Dut Pal, the son of Maharaja Summandar Pal of Ujjain against his enemies in A.D. 123.|
|10||Raja Judhister Pal||A.D. 162-201. He was the son of Raja Parosin Pal|
|11||Raja Narender Dut Pal||A.D. 201-204. He had a son Raja Sheroddal|
|12||Raja Tenjin Pal||A.D. 204-257. He was the brother of Raja Narender Dut Pal and he appointed, Raja Sheroddal, as prime minister, but later, both began to fight in which Raja Sheroddal was killed. Raja Sheroddal had a son Sarab Sin Pal who went in Kangra and became the son in law to this family. With help of others, he killed his uncle, Raja Tenjin Pal later|
|13||Sarab Sin Pal||A.D. 257-305.|
|14||Raja Gandharb Sin Pal||A.D. 305-342. He was disqualified ruler. In his reign, the unrest began and the areas of Punjab were separated from Kashmir. Raja Lachman Pal, the grandson of Raja Tenjin Pal put Raja Gandharb Sin Pal in jail and occupied the Sri Nagar.|
|15||Raja Lachman Pal||A.D. 342-375. He annexed again all the areas of Punjab to Kashmir. He also fought against the Raja of Multan, Raja Soma Karam on his revolt. Raja Soma Karam was the descendant of Maharaja Summandar Pal (A.D. 78-102). Raja Lachman Pal had a son Raja Bajara Dut Pal.|
|16||Raja Shorak Pal||A.D. 375-426. he was the real nephew to Raja Lachman Pal, who was accompanied with Raja Lachman Pal during Punjab Campaign. On the death of Raja Lachman Pal in Punjab, he returned to Kashmir and became the ruler of Kashmir and ignored the son of Raja Lachman Pal|
|17||Raja Bajara Dut Pal||A.D. 426-436. He also ignored the son of Raja Shorak Pal whose name was Raja Jay Andar and became the ruler of Kashmir. Raja Jay Pal was killed during the war, he had only one son, Raja Ram Dev Pal Rathore, later he became the Maharaja of India in A.D. 460-514. He was just eight years old, when Raja Bajara Dut Pal’s son and daughter in law, Rani Narma sent him to Qanuj for his safety. Rani Narma was in the 11th. generation of Maharaja Bikramajit. Raja Dev Pal joined the army of Qanuj|
|18||Raja Rana Dut||A.D. 436-497. He was the son Raja Bajara Dut Pal. His wife was Rani Narma, who was a gentle woman. After ruling 61 years, the two entered into the cave and disappeared forever. They had a son Dunia Dut Pal.|
|19||Raja Dunia Dut Pal||A.D. 497-540. He was the son of Raja Rana Dut. After the death of Raja Rana Dut and Rani Narma, Maharaja Ram Dev Pal Rathore came to Kashmir for visit in A.D. 498, as both were his real Uncle and Aunt.|
|20||Raja Bikrima Dut Pal||A.D. 540-582. He was the younger brother of Raja Dunia Dut Pal|
|21||Raja Bala Dut Pal||A.D. 582-617. He had no male children. He had only one daughter, Anan Likha, she was married to Raja Daron Lon who was the son of an in charge for stable of Raja Bala Dut Pal. He handed over the rule to his son in law|
|22||Raja Daron Lon||A.D. 617-653. He belonged to Lon Tribe who was the descendant of the brother Rathore and was the grand grandson of Kashar. He had only one son, Pahan, who was died in the age of 20.|
|23||Raja Partab Padlon||A.D. 653-703. He was the grandson of Raja Pahan. He died in A.D. 703. He had a son Raja Chandra Pandtun|
|24||Raja Chandra Pandtun||A.D. 703-711.|
|25||Raja Tara Padlon||A.D. 711-715.|
|26||Raja Makita Padlon||A.D. 715-752.|
|27||Raja Vazarat Lon||A.D. 753-760. The son of Raja Makita Padlon|
|28||Raja Parthiva Padlon||A.D. 760-764. The son of Raja Vazarat Lon|
|29||Raja Sangram Padlon||Only for 7 days. Son of Raja Parthiva Padlon|
|30||Raja jia Padlon||A.D. 764-797. Raja Parthiva Padlon|
|31||Raja Lilta Padlon||A.D. 797-809.|
|32||Raja Sagrama Padlon||A.D. 809-816.|
|33||Raja Chit jia Padlon||A.D. 816-828. Son of Raja Lilta Padlon|
|34||Raja Ajada Padlon||A.D. 828-865. Son of Raja Lilta Padlon. After him, his uncle’s son Raja Ananga Padlon became the ruler|
|35||Raja Ananga Padlon||A.D. 865-870. After him, the son of Raja Ajada Padlon, Raja Adeb Padlon became the ruler|
|36||Raja Adeb Padlon||A.D. 870-872. From here, the reign of Kashmir was transferred to Tantray Tribe|
|37||Raja Aonti verm Tantray||A.D. 872-900. He belonged to Tantray, who was the descendant of Khash and was in the 42nd. Generation of Tantray|
|38||Raja Shankar Verma||A.D. 900-919. Son of Raja Aonti verm Tantray|
|39||Raja Gopal Verma Tantray||A.D. 919-921. Son of Raja Shankar Verma|
|40||Raja Sang Verma Tantray||Only for 10 days|
|41||Rani Sugandha||A.D. 921-923. She was widow of Raja Shankar Verma Tantray|
|42||Raja Path Verma Tantray||A.D. 923-939. The son of Raja Narzta (Panguta Tantray), who was cousin of Raja Shankar Verma|
|43||Raja Narzta (Panguta Tantray||A.D. 939-940. He became the ruler of Kashmir|
|44||Raja Shankar Verma Tantray||A.D. 940-950. He was the second son of Raja Narzta (Panguta Tantray|
|45||Raja Sher Verma Tantray||A.D. 950-951. He was the third son of Raja Narzta (Panguta Tantray|
|46||Raja Parth Verma||A.D. 951-952. became again ruler of Kashmir|
|47||Raja Chakra Verma||A.D. 952-954.|
|48||Raja Aonmata Verma Tantray||A.D. 954-956. Son of Raja Parth Verma|
|49||Raja Sher Verma Tantray||A.D. 956. Son of Raja Aonmata Verma Tantray|
|50||Raja Sangram Dev Pal||A.D. 956-966. After Verma Tantray Family, Raja Sangram Dev Pal became the ruler of Kashmir. He was the son of Raja Poshaskar Pal, who was the descendant of Raja Parosin Pal, the founder of Sri Nagar and Raja Kashmir in A.D. 102-162.|
|51||Raja Poh Guppt||A.D. 966-968. Maharaja Chandra Guppt Maurya’s members had been Raja of Kashmir. From this line, Raja Poh Guppt who was in the 32th. generation of Raja Abhimanyu (Raja Kashmir in 129-152 B C)|
|52||Raja Khima Guppt||A.D. 968-976.|
|53||Raja Abhimanyu II||A.D. 976-990.|
|54||Raja Nandi Guppt||A.D. 990-991. The son of Raja Abhimanyu II|
|55||Raja Bhuna Guppt||A.D. 991-993.|
|56||Raja Khima Guppt II||A.D. 993-998.|
|57||Rani Didda||A.D. 998-1017. Raja Khima Guppt married to Rani Didda, the daughter of Raja Bheema Pal who was the Raja of Lohar Kot Punch. She was the real cousin of Raja Jaya Pal (Raja Lahore A.D. 955-1003) and his younger brother Raja Prithvi Pal (Raja of Rajouri A.D. 968-1022). Rani Didda was in the 39th. generation of Raja Buk of Lohar Kot Punch|
|58||Raja Sangram Pal||A.D. 1017-1048. He was the real nephew of Rani Didda|
|59||Raja Hari Pal||A.D. 1048. Only for 22 Days. He was the son of Raja Sangram Pal|
|60||Raja Anant Pal||A.D. 1041-1094. He was the younger brother of Raja Hari Pal|
|61||Raja Kalash Dev Pal||A.D. 1094-1102. The son of Raja Anant Pal|
|62||Raja Harsh Dev Pal||A.D. 1103-1114. The author of Raj Trangani. Pundit Klahan had been his Minister|
|63||Raja Aoschal Pal||A.D. 1114-1125. He was the son of Raja Mohib Pal, who was the cousin of Raja Harsh Dev Pal|
|64||Raja Sosal Pal||A.D. 1125-1133. He was the brother of Raja Aoschal Pal|
|65||Raja Sosal Pal||A.D. 1134-1135. He became second time, the ruler of Kashmir|
|66||Raja Jaya Singh Pal||1135-1162 A D. The son of Raja Sosal Pal|
|67||Raja Paranul Pal||A.D. 1162-1170. The son of Raja Jaya Singh Pal|
|68||Raja Verti Pal||A.D. 1170-1177. He had no male children, later he died and the reign of Kashmir again transferred to Lon Tribe|
|69||Raja Adibia Dev Lon||A.D. 1177-1186. He was in the 10th. generation of Raja Ananga Padlon A.D. 870-865.|
|70||Raja Rasa Dev Lon||A.D. 1186-1204. The brother of Raja Adibia Dev Lon|
|71||Raja Jag Dev Lon||A.D.1204-1218. The son of Raja Rasa Dev Lon|
|72||Raja Raj Dev Lon||A.D. 1218-1242.|
|73||Raja Raj Sangram Dev Lon||A.D. 1242-1258. The son of Raja Raj Dev Lon|
|74||Raja Ram Dev Lon||A.D. 1258-1279. The son of Raja Raj Sangram Dev Lon. He had no Male Children, so he made the ruler, Raja Lachman Dev pal Narma|
|75||Raja Lachman Dev pal Narma||A.D. 1279-1292. He was in the 99th. generation of Raja Kahan Dev Pal Narma who was the descendant of Raja Bhooj Dev Narma 1|
|76||Raja Sehm Dev Pal||A.D. 1292-1307. The son of Raja Lachman Dev pal Narma|
|77||Raja Sehv Dev Pal||A.D. 1307- October7, 1320. The son of Raja Sehm Dev Pal. During his reign, the prince Zulqadar Khan Turk invaded Kashmir via Pakhali Hazara to Baramulla, with 70 thousand horse men in October7, A.D. 1320. Upon hearing of such large army, he went on his way to his father in law’s home in Kishtwar. While the commander of army Raja Ram Chandra Pal disappeared from the scene.|
|78||Raja Ram Chandra Pal||A.D. 1320. After the departure of prince Zulqadar Khan Turk. The commander of army Raja Ram Chandra Pal came back to Andar Kot Sari Nagar and took the control of Kashmir. Later, he was assassinated under the conspiracy made by his son in law, Ranchan Bhatta, and then he occupied Kashmir|
|79||Rani Kota||A.D. 1320-1339. After the death of Ranchan Bhatta (Saddar-Ul-Din), she became the Queen of Kashmir until A.D. 1339, then Shah Mir (he was the real cousin of prince Zulqadar Khan Turk, who invaded Kashmir Valley in A.D. 1320) occupied the reign of Kashmir. After Rani Kota Queen, the reign of ancient Hindu Pal Rajput family ended from the Valley of Kashmir|
The grandfather of Kashmir ruler Raja Shorak Pal in A.D. 375-426, Maharaja Hindustan Raja Ram Dev Rathore defeated the Raja of Jammu and occupied it. Later, Raja Ram Dev Rathore married his two sons Raja Bains Dev and Raja Sulehria Dev with the two daughters of Raja Jammu and he gave the entire area of Kohistan Salt to present-day Jhelum, Pind Dadan Khan, Chakwal and Talla Gang in jagir to Raja Jammu’s son Raja Khokhar Rai. The descendants of this Raja Khokhar Rai called Khokhar Rajputs. In the army of the rulers of Punjab and Kabul, Raja Jaya Pal and Raja Anand Pal, these Khokhar Rajputs mostly had been participated in battles against Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi’s invasions to India.
At the time, when Raja Mal Dev Rathore (the ancestor of Janjua Rajputs) migrated from the place Jajua located in between Agara and Delhi to the area of Jhelum in Punjab in A.D. 986, the ruler of Punjab with the capital of Lahore, was Raja Jaya Pal (A.D. 955-1003) who was also from Hindu Pal Rajputs Family as the Raja Ram Dev Rathore. At that time, Raja Jaya Pal was the powerful Rajput ruler of northern India, who rose up against Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi for the independence of his territories. While his younger brother Raja Prithvi Pal (A.D. 968-1022) was the ruler of Rajapuri (Rajouri) and his real cousins were also the rulers of Bhimber (Raja Thur Athakial Pal) and Lohar Kot Punch (Rani Didda, who later, became Queen of Kashmir). Raja Mangar Pal was in the 8th. generation of Raja Prithvi Pal of Rajapuri, who is the ancestor of Mangral Rajputs. Raja Mal Dev Rathore knew that one of his ancestors, Maharaja Ram Dev Rathore came from Kashmir to Qanuj India, he wanted to try his luck on Kashmir now. When Raja Jaya Pal came to know his plan, he explained to Raja Mal Dev Rathore that his cousin Rani Didda was ruling the area of Punch and Kashmir at that time, so he abandoned his intention to invade Kashmir. Raja Jaya Pal gave the Jhelum and its surrounding areas to Raja Mal Dev Rathore in jagir. The areas of Garh Makhila and Malott are named after him and his descendants. Raja Mal Dev Rathore with his companions, particularly Raja Bhooj Dev Narma III, participated in many battles against Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi in support of Raja Jaya Pal and Raja Anand Pal, the rulers of Punjab. During the battle, Raja Mal Dev Rathore and Raj Bhooj Dev Narma III were arrested and became prisoners of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi but both entered into Islam later in A.D. 1013 and adopted the name as Raja Mal Khan Rathore and Raja Bhooj Khan Narma. Raja Mal Khan’s descendants are called Janjua, Khakha, and Wains etc. While Raja Bhooj Khan remained with Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi till A.D. 1030. He was actually the descendant of Maharaja Hindustan Raja Bhooj Dev Panvar Narma I (A.D. 574-665) and was in his 12th, generation. Raja Bhooj Khan Narma had five sons as Raja Mank Dev Narma, Raja Darin Dev Narma, Raja Kahan Dev Narma, Raja Hari Dev Narma, and Raja Lachman Dev Narma. Among them, Raja Mank Dev or Raja Makar Dev Narma accepted Islam but he was opposed by his non-Muslim relatives, then he migrated from Akhnur to Palandri in A.D. 1030. His descendants are inhabited in Punch and Bagh and he was also the ancestor of Muslim Narma Rajput Tribe.
After the death of Raja Mal Khan Rathore, his son Raja veer Khan became the ruler of his area. After him his son Raja Ahmad Khan became the ruler. The second son of Raja Mal Khan Rathore, Raja Jeht Khan obtained the area of Makhiala as a jagir. His all descendants settled in their Jagirs. The third son of Raja Mal Khan Rathore, Kala Khan or Kahiro Khan settled in Rawalpindi. His descendants are called Gharwal. While the fourth son of Raja Mal Khan Rathore, Tarnoli inhabited in present day District Hazara. His descendants are called Tanoli in the area. The youngest son of Raja Mal Khan Rathore, Raja Sun Pal had twenty-two sons. The eldest son of Raja Sun Pal was Raja Wains, his descendants are called Wains Rajputs. From the Hindu wife of Raja sun Pal, there were two sons, Bajwa and Ghuman. Some of their descendants are Hindu and some of them are Muslim. One of the sons of Raja Mal Khan Rathore, Raja Khakh went to rule Kashmir via Kohala, but could not succeed because the sons of Last ruler of Lahore, Raja Tarlochan Pal and Raja Anand Pal were already settled with their armies in Kashmir. So, Raja Khakh Khan give up the plan to go Kashmir and settled in the way at Chatter Class. The descendants of his grandson, Raja Hatim Khan are called Hatmaal. The younger son Raja Mange Khan of Raja Khakh Khan, in the 5th. generation, there was Raja Dhoda or Taiz Khan, whose descendants are called Taizial and they all inhabited in Punch, Bagh and Chukar.
Hindu Pal Rajput Rulers of Lahore, Rajapuri, Punch and Bhimber
The ruler of Kashmir in 345 B.C, Raja Akh Pal had three sons, 1-Raja Andar Judhister Pal, 2-Raja Abister Pal and 3-Raja Trashit Pal. Maharaja Hind Raja Ram Dev Rathore and Raja Mal Dev Rathore were the descendants of Raja Andar Judhister Pal. While Raja Abister Pal was arrested and killed when he tried to kill Alexander at Jhelum during hunting.
The Third Son of Raja Akh Pal, Raja Trashit Pal, came to Malwa in India with his elder brother, Raja Andar Judhister Pal. In the 9th. generation of Raja Trashit Pal, there was Raja Summandar Pal Jogi who became the Maharaja Hind in A.D. 78-102, and was also the son in law of Maharaja Bikramajit Narma of India in A.D. 9-78. (he was the founder of Bikrimi Calendar). Raja Summandar Pal founded the first settlement in the place of present-day Lahore and named after him as the settlement of Summandar Pal (نگری سمندرپال). Then in his 9th. generation, there was Raja Soma Pal who succeeded to become the ruler of Multan in A.D. 375. In his 15th. generation, there was Raja Bikram Pal who was the famous ruler of Lahore in A.D. 910. Raja Bikram Pal actually the ancestor of the Hindu Pal Rajput rulers of Lahore, Bhimber, Rajapuri, Lohar Kot Punch and Kashmir. Raja Bikrima Pal had three sons as, 1-Raja Astbal Pal (Raja of Lahore), 2-Raja Bheema Pal (Raja of Lohar Kot Punch) and 3-Raja Atikial Pal (Raja of Bhimber). Raja Astbal Pal had two sons, 1- Raja Jaya Pal (the ruler of Punjab and Kabul, (A.D. 955-1003) and 2-Raja Prithvi Pal (Raja of Rajapuri, A.D. 968-1022).
After the death of Raja Astbal Pal, his son Raja Jaya Pal became the ruler of Kabul and Punjab and later, ruled the areas of North India as a Powerful Rajput Ruler A.D. 955-1003. Many Hindu Dynasties were under his control. He fought many fierce battles against Sultan Subuktigin and his son Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi for the independence of Northern India. Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi made seventeen attacks on India but among them, only the fourteen attacks, he made against Raja Jaya Pal and his successors to defeat them. A complete detail is given by the famous historian Al-Biruni in his book.
Now a brief detail of these attacks against Raja Jaya Pal and his successors is as follows:
In his first attack, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi had a bloody battle with Raja Jaya Pal at Peshawar, and Raja Jaya Pal was defeated. In this war, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi gained immense wealth. The necklace of Raja Jaya Pal was worth of two Lacks Dirhams. Raja Jaya Pal’s son Raja Anand Pal was present in presidency Lahore, he paid his ransom and released his father and prisoners of war. It is said that Raja Jaya Pal committed suicide on this defeat and then his son Raja Anand Pal became the ruler of Punjab. Later on, Raja Anand Pal also made the declaration of war against Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi. At the place of Hund (Swabi), the war broke out, but Raja Anand Pal failed and crossed the Jhelum River at present day Mangala and headed towards Suhdara (present day Wazirabad). Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi’s army pursued him to the Suhdara, but Raja Anand Pal went to Lohar Kot Punch in Kashmir, where his near relatives were the rulers of the areas.
After Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi returned back to Ghazni, Raja Anand Pal started a struggle to unite all Rajput Rulers of India against Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi and succeeded in assembling a united army and reinforcement. Raja Anand Pal once camped at Peshawar with an army and Mahmud Ghaznavi, on the other hand, was also fully prepared. The two armies camped for 40 days. Sultan ordered to attacked first. The majority of Khokhar and Minhas Rajputs were in the army of Raja Anand Pal. It was the terrible fight. Sultan’s army about to be defeated when the elephant of Raja Anand Pal suddenly injured and began to flee and this sparked anarchy. Then the army of Raja Anand Pal began to be defeated. The commanders of Ghaznavi’s army, Abdullah Tayi and Arsalan Jazab continued the chase of defeated army and they occupied on the areas of Hund (Swabi) and Suhdara city on the bank of Chenab River. Later on, Raja Anand Pal went to Kangra to seek refuge that time. Ghaznavi’s army occupied the Nagar Kot fort of Kangra. Then Raja Anand Pal requested for the reconciliation for the peace and he settled down at the place of Narine which was located on the bank of Chenab River of present-day Gujrat. After him. His son Raja Tarlochan Pal became the ruler of the area but he proved to be a weak ruler. Because his son Raja Bheema Pal II was actually ruling the area. Raja Bheema Pal II rebelled against Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, disobeying his grandfather’s peace treaty. The fighting, led by Ghaznavi army commander Abdullah Tayi. The first battle took place at the foot of Margalla Mountain. Raja Bheema Pal II went to Jhelum and stayed at fort of Nandna near Rohtas. Until now, Raja Bheema Pal’s army had the lead in this war, when he got more reinforcement, he himself came down the field and launched a fierce battle. Raja Bheema Pal’s army was defeated after a fierce battle with a personal squad of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi deployed by the commander Abdullah. After a ferocious battle, the army of Raja Bheema Pal suffered the defeat and Raja Bheema Pal took the refuge to Lohar Kot Punch via Bhimber. Raja Sangram Pal was the ruler of Lohar Kot Punch who was the real nephew of Rani Didda, the Queen of Kashmir. Due to such help of the Panjab Pal ruler, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi decided to attack Kashmir in A.D. 1015. First his army arrived in Mirpur on the bank of River Jhelum and then marched towards the area of present day Kotli and camped here on the bank of Punch River for three days. Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi’s army attacked on the fort of Punch via the Neiko Ram Fountain (present day known as Nakial). The fort was surrounded for many days. But the invasion was failed and Sultan’s army had to come back. Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi attacked the second time on the fort of Punch in A.D. 1021 but again he completely failed due to the severity of weather and the strength of the fort.
Raja Bheema Pal and his father Raja Tarlochan Pal continued to unite the Rajas of Hindustan against Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi. Among them Raja Raj Pal of Qanuj was in the front line. But Ghaznavi defeated them all Rajas and occupied on the whole area of Mithra. Then he attacked on the area of sarwah (present day Kunj) and the ruler of this place, Raja Chand Rai, was forced to make peace who was also the father in law of Raja Bheema Pal. Raja Chand Rai had a white elephant, Sultan Mahmud named this elephant as Khuda Dad.
Until now the Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi had attacked India twelve times, but still could not arrest Raja Bheema Pal and his father Raja Tarlochan Pal, as both were still uniting the local Rajas against Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi and up to him information about them was reached. Raja of Qanuj had reconciled with Ghaznavi, so Raja Rai Nanda (the ruler of Kalinjar or Bandha) attacked on Qanuj along with other Rajas. Raja Qanuj was killed during this attack. When Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi heard this, he attacked on Raja of Kalinjar and his companions for revenge. This was his 13th. invasion on India. After defeating them, Sultan Mahmud went back.
In his 14th. attack on India, Sultan Mahmud again occupied the areas of Peshawar and Punjab, but this time Raja Tarlochan Pal was died and his son Raja Bheema Pal II had taken refuge in Ajmer. Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi later attacked Ajmer after winning a major battle near Bikaner, while the Raja Bheema Pal II had left the Ajmer at that time. In this attack. Ghaznavi also conquered the areas of the temple of Somnath.
Raja Bheema Pal II left the city of Ajmer and appeared in Nagarkot Kangra. Later on, he went to Kashmir with 4-mans (40 Seers) Gold and 1,80,000 Ashrafis. The son of Raja Bheema Pal II became the ruler of Nagarkot Kangra, whose name was Raja Sodar Pal. Then his son Raja Sopram Pal became the ruler of Nagarkot Kangra, and he was also the father in law of Raja Sosal Pal, the ruler of Punch and Kashmir (A.D. 1114-1133.) After him his son Raja Raj Moor Chandra Pal became the Raja of Nagarkot Kangra. But in his reign, from Ghaznavi’s 5th. generation, Bahram Ghaznavi (A.D. 1117-1152) conquered Kangra and annexed it to Lahore and then Raja Raj Moor Chandra Pal settled in Kashmir where his real sister’s son, Raja Jaya Singh Pal was the ruler of Kashmir. Raja Raj Moor Chandra Pal (A.D. 1107-1135) had been the commander in chief of army and the prime minister of Kashmir. After him, his son Raja Karael Chandra Pal (A.D. 1204-1218) had been the commander in chief of army and the prime minister of Kashmir. Then his son Raja Kahoka Chandra Pal (A.D. 1218-1248) became the commander in chief of army and the prime minister of Kashmir. After him his son Raja Ballad Chandra Pal (A.D. 1242-1253) became the commander in chief of army and the prime minister of Kashmir. Then his son Raja Sangram Chandra Pal (A.D. 1253-1258) became the commander in chief of army of Kashmir and later he was promoted to prime minster in the reign of Raja Kashmir Raja Lachman Pal (A.D. 1279-1292). The son of Raja Sangram Chandra Pal, Raja Ram Chandra Pal A.D. 1320 became the commander in chief of army of Kashmir. Prince Zulqadar Khan Turk invaded Kashmir in A.D. 1320, which led the ruler of Kashmir, Raja Sehv Dev Pal went towards his father in law’s home in Kishtwar, while the commander in chief of army Raja Ram Chandra Pal went into hiding in his Jagir Lar. In the meantime, his son in law, Ranchan Shah Bhatta came out to his father in law’s jagir to seek a refuge in expressing his anger to his family. Ranchan Shah Bhatta was the husband of Rani Kotta, the daughter of Raja Ram Chandra Pal. Ranchan Shah Bhatta assassinated his father in law and occupied on Kashmir. Then he apologized to his brother in law Raja Raven Chandra Pal and appointed him as the commander in chief of army of Kashmir and he remained on this designation from A.D. 1321-1342. Later on, Shah Mir came to Kashmir and joined the army of Kashmir. Because of preaching Islam, the ruling family became Muslims. Ranchan Shah Bhatta was known as the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir whose name was Saddar-Ul-Din and also the Rani Kotta became the first Muslim Queen of Kashmir. They had a son Haidar-Ul-Din who had been under the supervision of Shah Mir.
After the death of Saddar-Ul-Din, Queen Rani Kotta had been ruling the country. With the efforts of Shah Mir, Queen Rani Kotta married to Raja Adiyan Dev Pal who was from the Pal family and actually the younger brother of Raja Sehv Dev Pal, who had been the ruler of Kashmir in A.D. 1320. Raja Adiyan Dev Pal also became a Muslim. He had a son Bola Rattan from the Queen Rani Kotta. After the death of Raja Adiyan Dev Pal, the Queen Rani Kotta became again the ruler of Kashmir but Shah Mir occupied on the fort of Andar Kot and forced her to marry him. Queen Rani Kotta married him but she suicided or she was assassinated later. Then Shah Mir occupied on Kashmir and such a way the Kashmir went under control of Shah Miri Family. Shah Mir was the real cousin of prince Zulqadar Khan Turk who invaded Kashmir in A.D. 1320. Raja Raven Chandra Pal had two daughters, one was married to King Allaudin who was the son of Shah Mir and the second was married to Malik Bahram-Ul-Din, who was the son of prince Zulqadar Khan Turk.
Raja Tarlochan Pal’s son Raja Sas Pal was awarded the title of Mehta and a jagir in Chehnani by Raja of Jammu and one of his sons, inhabited in village of Anbah Rayan Akhnur.
Raja Astbal Pal’s second brother, Raja Bheema Pal became the Raja of Lohar Kot Punch in 910 A.D. He had a son Raja Lohar Pal. The fort of Lohar Kot of Punch was founded by Raja Buk in 365 B.C., and named after his grand grandfather Raja Lo. Lohara Shahi Dynasty had also been the rulers of Kashmir from A.D. 1003 to 1320. The historian Pundit Klahan sheds light on this dynasty in his book Raj Trangani, he mentions the history of Lohar Shahi for 150 years. The circumstances and subsequent events of this family are written in books of Jonaraja and Sivarajah. Lohara family’s rule was based inside a hill fort known as Lohrin Kot. According to Mr. Stein, the first translator of Raj Trangani, this hill fort Lohar Kot was located in the mountain range of Pirpunjal, from where, between western Punjab and Kashmir, there was a highway. It was not included in the Kashmir border at that time, but the kingdom of Lohara was a separate kingdom which was consisted of many villages and its common name was as Lohrin and actually this name was due to the valley where the river was flowing.
The Raja Bheema Pal had a son, Raja Lohar Pal and a daughter, Rani Didda. Rani Didda had been the Queen of Kashmir. The wife of Raja Bheema Pal belonged to the Hindu Shahi dynasty of Kabul.
Raja Astbal Pal’s third brother, Raja Athakial Pal who was the ruler of Bhimber in A.D. 910, and later he was called the ancestor of Thakial Rajput Tribe. Raja Kashmir Raja Akh Pal established a military Check post a few miles of South of Nowshera, in 345 B.C, to control traffic and commerce from Punjab in Kashmir, The place where the check post was established, was called Bhoom (door) Mar (home), namely,(Bhommar, بھومر) the door of home, later on this became Bhimber (بھمبر). The Bhimber was given to Raja Athakial Pal as a jagir including the areas of Chaklala and present-day Rawalpindi. His descendants had been the rulers of Bhimber until A.D. 1430. The last ruler of this line was Raja Sri Pat Thakial who ruled from A.D. 1398 to 1430. After his death, his son in law, Raja Chib Chand occupied the Bhimber and he massacred of Thakial Ruling Dynasty. Then the Bhimber went under control of Chib family. The younger brother of the last Thakial ruler, migrated from Bhimber towards Mehndar Punch. The areas of Parawa and Thakiala were called and named after the settlement of these Thakial Rajputs.
The Raja of Rajapuri was Raja Prithvi Pal (A.D. 968-1022), and he was the younger brother of Raja of Kabul and Punjab, Raja Jaya Pal (A.D. 955-1003). The rulers of Lahore and Rajapuri (Raja Jaya Pal and Raja Prithvi Pal), Bhimber (Raja Athakial Pal) and Punch (Rani Didda) were all the real cousins to each other’s. Raja Prithvi Pal and his descendants had been the rulers of Rajapuri from A.D. 968 to 1217. This dynasty ruled the Rajapuri for 249 years. In this Dynasty, Raja Soma Pal (A.D. 1125-1133) was a famous ruler of Rajapuri. The last ruler of Rajapuri was Raja Amna Pal (A.D. 1172-1217) who was assassinated by his guest Raja Nur -Ul-Din (Shina Jaral) during a rebellion.