The relation between Kashmir and Punjab covers centuries. People and rulers on both sides were closely linked deeply and intimate with each other from ancient times. Even there has been a combination of mutual blood in both sides. That is, geographical and socially as well. While Kashmir Valley is famous land for paradise and peace in the world, Then the spectacles of the nature also make it colorful and beautiful. The Kashmir Valley has always been fascinated by the outside world for its relaxed and aesthetic nature.
For Kashmir and Kashmiris, this process is proud of the fact that Kashmir is the only one, whose detailed history has been written from ancient times. This Kashmir history is preserved from the time of Noah’s flood to the present.
Professor Paul Dean, the most famous Geologist and Botanist, describes that the Human being existence on the planet is about 350 million years ago. Earlier, life has been gone through the different stages in fishes, snakes, birds and mammals. Against this back ground, when we see that the oldest written script is available in Kashmir in which, the circumstances of Kashmir about 100 million years ago have been recorded. So, it is not only the surprise but it is the proud of Kashmiris to have it, because Kashmir is probably the only country where so many old events have been written off in the form of a book. The name of this ancient Sanskrit book is the Nila Mat Puran. It is more satisfying that the results obtained after the geological investigations are somewhat in line with ancient traditions. The results of ancient and geological surveys seem to agree on a location about 100 million years ago where the Kashmir Valley is today, there was a large and vast lake that was hundreds of feet deep. Its last mark is probably still present today in the form of Wular Lake.
Since Kashmir has been protected within the walls of the high mountains. So, the mention of this country does not appear in the earliest references of northwestern India at the time of Alexander the Great’s invasion. However, there is a mention of the Arsha and Abhisar. The research has proved that they inhabited of Arsha and Abhisar respectively, which were the names of two areas west and south of Kashmir. Mr. Stein explains, Darvabhisara includes all the area between the Jhelum (Vatasta) and the Chenab (Chandra Bhaga) rivers, and the hill states of Rajapuri. Rajapuri and Bhimber states of ancient Abhisar are now located within the state of Kashmir.
The earliest reference within the ancient Chinese lexicon is the Chinese language term PIN used for Kashmir. This term was used appropriately for the upper part of Kabul valley relatively to India when Chinese information was limited, so this term was used for the areas in the north of India including Kashmir.
Chinese tourists also introduce Kashmir to most countries in the east and west of the world. The details of these Chines tourists are as follows:
|No.||Name of Chinese tourist||Period||Route|
|1||Fa-Hien||A.D. 399||Entered Ladakh and Gilgit via Turkistan|
|2||Che-Mong||A.D. 404-424||Entered Kashmir, after a very difficultly and patiently journey in Central Asia, he reached Pamir and crossed into Kashmir. After a long stay, he returned to India and then to China|
|3||Fa-Yong||A.D. 420||Reached Pamir via Turfan, Kucha and Kashghar, then he crossed the passes of Pamir and entered Kashmir through Gilgit Valley|
|4||Heun-Tsiang||A.D. 631-633||Great Buddhist and Monk, he arrived in Kashmir via Hazara from Central Asia in A.D. 631, the name of Hazra was the Urusha at that time. He stayed in Kashmir from May 831 to April A.D. 633. He wrote a book the story of the western land in A.D. 646 which earned much fame. In the book he praised Kashmir much and shed light on the habits and dresses of people including the geography and the openhearted ruler of Kashmir. During Heun-Tsiang, the political boundaries of Kashmir were extended to Taxila|
|5||Ou-Kong||A.D. 759-763||Also called Dharam Dutta. He entered Kashmir from Kabul and Gandhara|
According to the History of Rajgan-e-Kashmir,” Raj Trangani”, there was a very deep lake situated in the Kashmir Valley. In this lake, there was the accommodation of a demon, Jalodbhava. The Deity wanted to kill this demon, but as long as he remained under the water of lake, it was impossible to finish him. The king of Kashmir resolved this difficulty with the help of a noble and a pious elder Kashyap, who was actually the grandson of Brahma and who also created the whole universe. He cut the mountain near the Bara Mulla by the same blow of his magic sword, from which all the water of this lake was drained and then the valley of Kashmir came into existence at the bottom of the lake and the Jalodbhava was also disappeared.
Anyway, it is the fact that the valley of Kashmir was recovered from the depth of a lake. This part of the earth is filled with the layers of accumulated soil and sand, which took millions of years. These layers were actually made of mud and debris from the surrounding mountains that were made from falling. In some places, these layers are upto 700 meters or 2300 feet thick. The upper layers are made of mud and clay, from where some fossils have been founded, which shows that when the weather was warm and humid, the region was submerged in a deep lake. Snow-fall and the Glaciers have also played a key role to fill out this lake. The flow of water from the surrounding mountains during the Ice Age, also brought the debris of mud and clay to accumulate them in the place od valley. This process had been continued for millions of years and slowly the lake had begun to disappear. Where Jhelum River, some swamps and some small lakes are still there. The abundance of rice, corn, fruits and vegetables are produced because of the fertile region. Besides, the area is rich with valuable resources. The shape of valley is like a wide ellipse which is 85 miles (135 km) long and 20 miles (32 km) wide. It has the Himalaya in the northeast and the mountains range of Pirpunjal in the southwest.
In some of verses of Mahabharat, the reference of Kaashmirun and their rulers was mentioned. The Kaashmirun were mentioned in the list of northern nations in Puranas. Waradh Mehr, who lived in A.D. 500, states about the Kaashmirun who were in the northeast of area in his book Bharat Singhta. He also wrote about the nations who were located near Kashmir. For example: Abhisar, Dard, Daard, Khas, Kahir, Klut (Klu), Kovind, and kolind etc. There are various references about the Khash State and Khash tribe in Raj Trangani.
The study of Al-Beroni’s book Al-Hind reveals that in the 8th. Century A D, when the Arabs first invaded the Indus valley, thereafter the Muslim invaders had been reaching to the boundaries of Kashmir but despite of various invasions, they could not win the victory in the northern plains of Punjab. Because the royal dynasty of Kabul or Hindu Shahi in the north of Kashmir was bravely combating with invaders and in the south, different Hindu warrior states were bound in a band. Therefore, Kashmir never had any threat to the Muslims. Kashmir remained safe in its mountains walls for centuries after Islam prevailed over the whole of northern India. Alberoni mentions in his writings, the importance of the Patra (A sheet of matter) which he received from Kashmir in A.D. 1030. Such a Patra could not be found by any means other than the Kashmiri Pandits. This shows that there were definitely the relations between the Alberoni and Kashmiri Pundits.
Kashmir is therefore called Kaashmir or Kashmir, where the Kasha or Khash, the name of a tribe settled here. The same tribe founded the cities of Kash, Kashghar and Kaushal in Central Asia as well. The Mughal king Zahir-ul-Din Babar was also a scholar, he writes in his book Tuzk-e-Babari that the name of Kashmir is attributed to the Khash Tribe. The author of book History of Malkan, Dr. Muhammad Sadiq Malik states in his book that the Kashmir valley is because of the name a person Khash. namely Khash Mar
means the home of Khash. Mar is the word of the Hebrew language used for home. According to Dr. Muhammad Sadiq Malik, Khash, the son of Ash is from one of the sons of Jacob’s 37th. Generations who migrated from Baghdad Iraq and settled in Sharda presently known as Muzaffarabad in 526 B.C. All ancient Kashmiri inhabitants, those called Kashmiri Pundits, are Khash’s generation.
It is also worth considering that Kashmiri are popularly named Koshur, which is an Indo-Aryan language. The linguists are convinced that the Koshur people separated from their main branch of the Aryan side as the early settlers Naga, like Gandhara, Kinvas, and Yakshas etc.